The author of the reading passage presents some examples of altruism contending that animals actually sacrifice themself for others. However the professor casts doubt on them providing information that shows that what is writen in the text is debatable.
The first proof mentioned in the passage is that in meerkat society there is a role to look outside standing to check if predator is comming while members of community are hanting and eating. The author of the passage implies that while waiting, such guards cannot take food and may get hungly. Conversery, the professor negates this contending that meerkat which already take food do work as guard. Thus they are enough full. This is in the contradiction to what is written in the passage.
The second example given in the passage is that when a guard find predators and give alarm, he is alone and is more likely to be hunted. In contrast, the professor contradicts this asserting that guard can run away from predator easily than others. Reasons of it are that guard is the first one which notices comming danger, is close to place to live and hide, and by giving alert it can distract predator's attention to him.
The third illustration demonstrated in the text is that human sometimes give food even to strangers without expectiong much rewords. On the contrary, the professor is in opposition to this and states that people act nicely expectiong something in return. The professor says that return may be social approval or sence of self-worthy.
In conclution, the main argumants of the professor make the claims of the passage more doubltful.In conclution, the main argumants of the professor make the claims of the passage more doubltful.In conclution, the main argumants of the professor make the claims of the passage more doubltful.