toefl writing












[The author of the reading passage presents three possible reasons why (evidence that )---.

However, the professor refutes (casts doubt on) this by providing information that shows what is written in the text is questionable (wrong).]

[The {first, second, third} {reason, argument, point} {(MID)mentioned, identified, described} by the reading passage is that---]

[{ Conversely, On the other hand, in contrast} the {professor,speaker,lecturer} {counter (negates), contradicts} this by {asserting, contending} that ---

 ([questions, challenges, is skeptical about])

{is in opposition to this and states that ---}


[{ This is in contradiction to what is indicated in the reading passage.

This is an important point that was not considered by the author of the reading passage.

This is yet another example of how the professor and the author of the reading passage contradict one another. }]

[In conclusion, the main arguments put forth by the professor make the claims of the author of the reading passage seem more doubtful and less convincing.]












While people might have different opinions on-, I ...

Although there are a lot of ... I would like to , the very first on my list is ...

Nowadays there is a growing tendency among ... that...

I belive that there are advantages and disadcantages to both (each options) A and B. I personally---- 



The [First, second, third] [ローマ字reason, motive, justification] to [スーパーsupport, believe in, rely on] this [バスクview, stance, claim] is that [Reason].---- 

As the [EES example, experience, storty] above [demonstrates, illustrates, shows] [Reason]


*In summary, while there may be arguments to be made, either agreeing or disagreeing with my opinion, I am personally convinced that [Chosen Choice/Opinion] is the right [better] choice [opinion] because of all the reasons mentioned above. 


To further explain my argument, I will give an example from my personal experience.[Example ].

Moreover, we can find the reliable proof of this tendency in a scientific survey as well. Actually, the research done by Tokyo university ascertained that [Chosen Choice/Opinion]

For example, In addition, Therefore, because, As a result,
For instance, Then, furthermore, in contrast

An example of this, Let us take a situation where


regardless of, while some of... others...

result in

bereft of ...

in the first place

in comparison to 

right now 

a great deal of...



付録 使える「つなぎ言葉」
そのうえ What’s more, besides  
さらに Furthermore, moreover  
より重要なのは More importantly  
むしろ Instead, rather  
その一方 On the one hand  
他方では On the other hand  
比較すると By comparison  
それに反して On the contrary, in contrast, conversely  
従って So, consequently, therefore, thus, as a result, for that reason  
~のお陰で Thanks to  
最近 Recently, lately  
現在 Currently, presently, at present, today, nowadays, these days  
今後 From now on  
正直なところ To be honest, in all honesty, quite honestly  
率直なところ Frankly, frankly speaking, quite frankly  
個人的には Personally, as I see it  
~である限り As long as  
ある意味で In a sense, in one sense  
この場合 In this case  
ある場合には In some cases  
現時点では At this point, at this time, for now  
よくても At best  
これまでのところ So far  
厳密に言えば Strictly speaking  
つまり I mean  
言い換えると In other words, that is to say  
実際のところ As a matter of fact, actually  
事実上 In effect, in essence  
実は As a matter of fact, actually  
特に Especially, particularly, specifically  
すなわち Namely  
はっきりいうと More to the point, close to the point  
さて Well, now, then  
いずれにしても Anyway, in any case, in any event  
ところで By the way, incidentally  
それでも Still, yet, even so  
しかしながら However  
たとえ~でも Even if  
~でも Although  
~と同時に At the same time  
~にも関わらず In spite of, despite, notwithstanding  
それにも関わらず Nevertheless, nonetheless  
確かに~であるが To be sure  
一般的に Generally  
概ね Overall, for the most part, by and large. On the whole, in many cases, mostly  
基本的に Basically, fundamentally, in principle, essentially  
~に関しては Speaking of, as for, concerning, regarding, in regard to, in reference to, when it comes to  
~によると According to  
つまり In short, to sum up, in conclusion, in sum  
全般的にみて All in all  
多分 Maybe, probably, perhaps  
通常 Usually  
普通 Normally  
もちろん Of course  
当然ながら Naturally  
明らかに Obviously, apparently, evidently  
残念ながら Unfortunately  
幸運に Fortunately  
ご存知の通り As you now  
確かに Certainly  
本当に Indeed  
はっきりと Clearly  
実際 After all  
いうまでもなく Needless to say  
一方 Meanwhile  
驚くことに Surprisingly  
ありがたいことに Thankfully